Since 2011, the United Nations has made great efforts in Yemen, starting with sponsoring the peaceful transition of power after the popular youth revolution in Yemen and ending with its efforts to end the war in Yemen after the coup. of the Houthis against the power and military intervention of the Arab coalition led by Saudi Arabia on March 26, 2015, of which it denounced a political, economic and military crisis which was and still is extremely complex. Although the UN has fought for the restoration of peace and stability and provided humanitarian work to control the disaster of war and defuse the negative impacts of war on society, until today it fails to end the war in Yemen.
With the coming to power of President Joe Biden, there have been many changes in US policy towards Yemen and the region and more international efforts to resolve the Yemeni crisis. As the Trump administration scrambled to include the Houthis on the terror list days before stepping down from power, the Biden administration, meanwhile, scrambled to overturn the decision in its early days in office. White House. Joe Biden said the war “must end” and announced three decisions related to US policy regarding the war in Yemen, namely “to end US support for all offensive military operations and related arms deals, supporting United Nations efforts to resolve the conflict, and appointing Tim Lenderking as special envoy for Yemen. âAll of these steps are the result of tremendous pressure from humanitarian and human rights organizations to stop the massacres of civilians, and the intensification of the humanitarian situation in Yemen linked to the war, as well as the transformation of the war in Yemen, and Saudi Arabia -American relations, in an arena of political polarization in Washington, both at the institutional level, between the Congress and the presidency, than between the parties.
As a result, the Houthis reacted differently by stepping up their attacks and expanding their influence operations towards oil-rich Marib Governorate in an attempt by the Houthis to control important areas and expand their influence to as many areas. as possible to impose their presence and improve their negotiating position in any negotiations aimed at ending the conflict. The overturning of the Houthis’ designation as a terrorist group came against the backdrop of a new American approach to the Yemeni dossier, which the Biden administration says is about going the humanitarian aid route, working for stop the conflict through a negotiated agreement. settlement and supporting UN peace efforts.
Riyadh and a number of regional capitals witnessed an active US diplomatic movement, where US Special Envoy to Yemen Lenderking and US Ambassador to Yemen Christopher Henzel met with Saudi, Yemeni officials. and Omani, they also met with the UN envoy to Yemen, Martin Griffiths, in addition to what was said about his meeting with the head of the Houthi group’s negotiating delegation, Muhammad Abdul Salam in Muscat.
Saudi Arabia, for its part, announced on March 22, 2021 an initiative to end the Yemeni crisis and achieve a comprehensive political solution, which includes a comprehensive ceasefire under the supervision of the United States, the opening of the Sana’a international airport, and the start of consultations between the Yemeni parties to reach a political solution to the Yemeni crisis. Although it was welcomed regionally and internationally and endorsed by the Yemeni government, the Houthis responded by rejecting it, and Houthi chief negotiator Muhammad Abdul Salam tweeted, describing it as an “initiative to media consumption, neither serious nor new â.
In recent months, Muscat has been the scene of intense movements in which UN and US envoys to Yemen have worked to regularly transfer proposals between Muscat and Riyadh, with the aim of reconciling views on the Saudi initiative, which some see as an extension of the United States. and the UN initiatives for a ceasefire and the resumption of political consultations. Despite all this diplomatic momentum, there is so far no progress in the negotiations in Muscat and in perhaps a final attempt by the UN envoy, who is supposed to quit his post of envoy to the UN in Yemen, after being appointed UN Deputy Secretary. – General of Humanitarian Affairs, during this week he visited the Yemeni capital to meet with the Houthi leadership, after his efforts with the Houthi delegation in Muscat were hampered. During his visit to Sana’a, he called on the parties to the conflict to use the regional and international diplomatic momentum to end the war and end the ceasefire. “We have proposed several ways to bridge the gap between the disputing parties, and there is an extraordinary diplomatic consensus to support these proposals,” he said before leaving the Yemeni capital.
The Houthis, on the other hand, insisted not to link the humanitarian issue to the political or military issue. The Houthi leader said that “the attempt to link humanitarian duty to a legitimate and independent right and to link it to other matters of a military or political nature is an explicit confiscation of the right of the Yemeni people to their most basic human rights. and an equation that cannot be accepted at all. In which he indicates the rejection of the Saudi and UN initiative, which links the lifting of the ban on the Sanaa airport and the entry of petroleum derivatives into the port of Hodeidah as part of a set of solutions simultaneous which includes a comprehensive ceasefire in all governorates.
Despite all that the United States in cooperation with the European powers and the UN envoy has done while working on the Yemeni file for almost three months so far, and there is no change or penetration to bring the parties to the dialogue table and stop the bloodshed, and all these movements to no avail for many local and international reasons.
The Houthis believe that they still have strength and can achieve more military gains on the ground and that their strength is increasing day by day, and their transformation from defense to attack, whether against the Yemeni government to inside Yemen, like the war raging on the outskirts of Marib, the last government stronghold in the north. In addition, they can still threaten the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, whether through missile or drone attacks or through direct engagement and control of sites within the Kingdom’s borders, as has happened. recently. Therefore, they believe that concessions should be made by the government and the Kingdom, and they should not make any concessions. On the other hand, the Yemeni government and Saudi Arabia also see that the humanitarian side is linked to the military side and that lifting the siege of the Sanaa airport and the port of Hodeidah without agreeing on a formula. of a ceasefire would be an additional gain for the Houthis. to strengthen their power and capacities.
At the international level, Despite the complexity of the internal scene, the international community also bears a responsibility which has not been explicit and clear in its movements between the parties to the conflict and has not specified the party which is an obstacle to any settlement. Politics. Others think that there is no real international will, in particular on the part of the permanent members of the Security Council, which has all the powers, sanctions and decisive measures, but the interweaving and conflict of their Interests have made the issues and files of the Middle East and others a subject of conflict, and any strong and decisive decision proposed by one faces opposition from others. And many associate the Yemen issue with other issues in the region, such as the current Vienna agreement with Iran.
in conclusion, despite the international efforts and the unprecedented diplomatic momentum we have witnessed recently, including with Biden’s rise to power and his appointment as special envoy to Yemen, they have not been able to stop the bloodshed and bring the conflicting Yemeni parties to the negotiating table so far. International efforts have not been able to find any breakthrough or significant progress in resolving the Yemeni crisis and they will not be able to achieve any, unless they have the credibility to deal with the crisis and deter the forces of Yemen. ‘hinder the political settlement or there will be a real change on the ground which forces the parties to sit down at the negotiating table.